Abstract art 1880 – …

Term applied in its strictest sense to forms of 20th-century Western art that reject representation and have no starting- or finishing-point in nature As distinct from processes of abstraction from nature or from objects (a recurring tendency across many cultures and periods that can be traced as far back as Palaeolithic cave painting), abstract art as a conscious aesthetic based on assumptions of self-sufficiency is a wholly modern phenomenon

Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th century, underpinned by the logic of perspective and an attempt to reproduce an illusion of visible reality The arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology, science and philosophy The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, and reflected the social and intellectual preoccupations in all areas of Western culture at that time

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Abstract art, non-figurative art, non-objective art, and nonrepresentational art are loosely related terms They are similar, but perhaps not of identical meaning

Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art This departure from accurate representation can be slight, partial, or complete Abstraction exists along a continuum Even art that aims for verisimilitude of the highest degree can be said to be abstract, at least theoretically, since perfect representation is likely to be exceedingly elusive Artwork which takes liberties, altering for instance color and form in ways that are conspicuous, can be said to be partially abstract Total abstraction bears no trace of any reference to anything recognizable In geometric abstraction, for instance, one is unlikely to find references to naturalistic entities Figurative art and total abstraction are almost mutually exclusive But figurative and representational (or realistic) art often contains partial abstraction

Both geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction are often totally abstract Among the very numerous art movements that embody partial abstraction would be for instance fauvism in which color is conspicuously and deliberately altered vis-a-vis reality, and cubism, which blatantly alters the forms of the real life entities depicted