Anthony van Dyck

Antoon van Dyck (Antwerp, March 22, 1599 – London, December 9, 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist, leading painter in England, mainly a portraitist, who became the first court painter in England after a long stay in Italy. He is universally known for portraits of the Genoese nobility And Charles The King of England, his family members and his court With his method of relaxed elegance painting, he influenced the British portraitists, like Peter Lely, for the following years In addition to the portraits, for which he was very much Appreciated, he also dealt with biblical and mythical subjects, introducing some remarkable pictorial innovations.He painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching.

He was a pupil and friend of the painter Pieter Paul Rubens, who assimilated the technique and, in part, the style

After spending his youth in Antwerp, he moved to Italy, where he completed the ritual journey of formation, characteristic of all the great Flemish painters. Here he had the opportunity to see and copy some of the great Renaissance works, especially of his favorite painter, Titian Di Back from Italy, he went to England at the court of Charles I Stuart, where he practiced almost exclusively portraits

Van Dyck was born in Antwerp on March 22, 1599 in a house called “Den Berendans” in the city center. Grandfather Antoon (1529-1581), after being a painter, had opened up a silk merchant business; To his death, his wife, Cornelia Pruystinck, continued her husband’s affair with her sons Francesco and Ferdinando. The activity did a lot, as the family had clients even in Paris and London, as well as in most of the Flemish cities

Antoon’s father, Franchois, married in second marriage in 1590, Maria Cuypers Since marrying with this woman, she had twelve children, Antoon was the seventh. With the widow of the family, Van Dyck decided to buy a new home, Spacious and luxuriously furnished, “De Stadt van Ghendt”, including an Antoon bathroom, which was soon gifted with talent and was sent in 1609 at the shop of one of the best painters in the city, Hendrick van Balen, dean of the San Guild Luca, to learn the rudiments of painting and experience The first Van Dyck’s painted painting is just these years and it is the Portrait of a Seventy-Sixteen Man of 1613, where Van Balen’s recent teachings are apparent But soon he opened a shop Personal, along with his young friend Jan Brueghel the Younger, with whom he began abandoning the master’s school. In recent years, as Jan Brueghel was handed over, Antoon was commissioned to perform one Rhymes of paintings depicting the twelve apostles and a Silenus bleak Of this period is undoubtedly also the self-portrait of 1613-14

From 1617, Van Dyck worked closely with Pieter Paul Rubens of which he became a student, abandoning his own standby shop. After months of great collaboration between the two, Rubens spoke of Van Dyck as his best student. Even after 11 February 1618, on the day he was admitted to the Guild of Saint Luke as a master, Van Dyck worked with Rubens to make canvases such as Decio Mure dismisses the littors or Achilles among the daughters of Licomede In the workshop of Rubens, now affirmed painter throughout Europe, Van Dyck made his name known in the aristocracy and rich bourgeoisie and came into contact with classical culture and court label The young Antoon learned to imitate the models of the master, adopting many features, as it is easy to see in Painted The Emperor Theodosius and Saint Ambrose In 1620 Rubens signed a contract with the Jesuits of Antwerp for the decoration of their church, based on Rubens’ drawings, But performed by Van Dyck; In addition to this important assignment, Antoon also received numerous private inquiries for portraying portrays These paintings are depicted as the Portrait of Cornelius van der Geest or Maria van de Wouwer-Clarisse

In October 1620, when he was twenty-one, Van Dyck moved to London at the court of the King of England James IA convincing him to move to England were the insistence of Duke of Buckingham and Thomas Howard, Arundel, the latter great art-loving friend, Rubens’s friend and protector of Inigo Jones During his stay in London, he obtained from Giacomo I an annual one hundred pound pension; But soon Arundel’s Count granted him a travel permit abroad for eight months: he would not be back for eleven years. Van Dyck’s works during his first English stay are deeply different from those made until then in Antwerp Flanders , Who had just returned to Catholicism, Antoon had the opportunity to perform only religious paintings or portraits. In London, however, he enjoyed greater freedom both in the paintings and in the choice of the theme to be represented. In the picture Sir George Villiers, future Duke Of Buckingham and his wife Lady Katherine, such as Venus and Adone, for example, Van Dyck represents new brides like he had never done: the canvas has allegorical character, with a typical pastoral taste inspired by Titian, and the two subjects are represented Natural size Other known paintings of the period are The continence of Scipione and a portrait of the Count of Arundel

Back in Antwerp, he stayed there for about eight months; In this time in which Rubens was far away, he painted some of his brilliant and innovative portraits, such as Portrait of Isabella Brant, Rubens’s first wife, and Portrait of Frans Snyders and his wife Margareta de Vos When he communicated His decision to leave for Italy, Rubens gave him a horse for the trip and numerous letters of presentation to painters and buyers

In 1621 he decided to leave for Italy, a traditional journey of the Flemish painters, where he remained for six years, studying and analyzing the works of the great artists of the fifteenth and sixteenth century and where he was renowned as a portraitist. On 3 October 1621 he departed from Hometown at the time of the first Italian stage: Genoa Arrived in the maritime town, at that time directed by a Dogan government, on 20 November 1621 and took accommodation in the residence of Flemish painters and painters Lucas and Cornelis de Wael. Genoa, Antoon had already made about three hundred paintings, a situation opposed to that of his master Rubens or Nicolas Poussin, who on their arrival in Italy had not yet had the opportunity to work so intensely Presented to the best aristocracy of the city, he was able to portray some exponents Of the wealthiest families of the local patriziate (Spinola, Durazzo, Lomellini, Doria, Brignole etc); His immediate success is due in particular to the fame of Rubens, who had lived and worked a lot in Genoa, and of whom Van Dyck was seen as the new representative and continuator

Following the fortunate experience of Genoa, Van Dyck left in February 1622 to Rome, where he stayed until August of that year and for much of 1623. He was welcomed in the papal Rome, and was introduced into the best environment of society ; During his second visit he received from Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio two important commissions, consisting in the realization of a Crucifixion and a full-face portrait of the same Cardinal, the Portrait of Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio Bentivoglio had become cardinal the year before and was the protector Of the thick Flemish Roman community, having been a papal nuncio in Brussels from 1607 to 1615 In addition to the portrait of Cardinal Bentivoglio, one of the most famous of Van Dyck’s production, the young painter also portrayed Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, who would become there Little pope, under the name of Urban VIII. There are also numerous portraits of this period, such as those of the spouses Shirley (
Portrait of Lady Theresa Shirley and Portrait of Sir Robert Shirley) Unlike Master Rubens, Van Dyck never loved the classic world His Italian Notebook, a sketchbook and drawings made on the basis of great works studied during the Italian stay In Rome, however, he had the opportunity to observe and copy the masterpieces of the great Renaissance, mainly to Palazzo Ludovisi and Villa Borghese

From the papal city he moved to Florence, where he met Don Lorenzo de ‘Medici, son of Grand Duke Ferdinand I, great art passionate and generous patrons Probably painted a portrait of nobleman who was lost Along the way to reach the Veneto, In Bologna and Parma, where he admired the frescoes of Correggio Giunse finally in Venice, where he spent the winter 1622 In the lagoon town, home to one of his favorite artists, Titian, was led to visit the great Venetian masterpieces by his nephew Nicholas, Cesare Vecellio Antoon could finally crown his dream, see and analyze the works of Tiziano and Paolo Veronese: in his Italian Notebook there are drawings of works by Giorgione, Raffaello, Guercino, Carracci, Bellini, Tintoretto, Leonardo, but to prevail Those of Titian, to which two hundred pages are dedicated

From Venice passed to Mantua, where he was introduced to the court of the Gonzaga. Here he met Ferdinand and Vincenzo II Gonzaga, who had been the protector of Rubens. With his stay in Mantua, Van Dyck had the opportunity to see the Dukes’ collection before it was dispersed. In 1623 Was again in Rome, a city in which he refused to come into contact with the local association of Flemish painters, far from the academic style, which led to a simple and non-ostentatious life such as his

From Rome he passed to Genoa, stopping first in Milan and Turin, where he was received by the Savoy

In April 1624, Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Viceroy of Sicily on behalf of the King of Spain Philip IV, invited Van Dyck to Palermo to take an Antoon portrait. He received the invitation and moved to Sicily where he depicted the Viceroy. Is located today at the Dulwich Picture Gallery in London Shortly after the city of Palermo was struck by a terrible plague epidemic that killed the same Emanuele Filiberto Despite the rage of the plague, Van Dyck remained in the city until about September 1625

Here he met the aged painter Sofonisba Anguissola, who is now ninety years old, who would die the following year and Antoon made a portrait During the encounter, which Van Dyck described as “very courteous,” the elderly woman, almost completely blind, gave Precious advices and warnings to the young painter as well as telling stories about his life The portrait of Sofonisba Anguissola is kept in the Italian Notebook Shortly after the find of the relics of Santa Rosalia (July 15, 1624), who was patron saint of the city, in Van Dyck Some canvases were to be commissioned in Palermo that would have depicted the holy Dipinse among others a Crucifixion, today exhibited in the cathedral of San Lorenzo in Trapani

In the autumn of 1625, Antoon returned to Genoa where he completed the realization of the Madonna of the Rosary, then sent to Palermo, where he is exposed to the oratory of San Lorenzo considered to be the greatest religious masterpiece of the artist Negli Years later, until 1627, Van Dyck resided almost always in Genoa except for a short period in 1625 when he was a guest in the Provence of humanist Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc

During his stay in Genoa, Antoon van Dyck was mainly a portraitist While not abandoning religious and mythical themes, the artist focused on the genre of the portrait: his canvases were usually large and featured characters of the best nobility often full-length The portraits stand out for their majesty and for the great psychological rendering of people, which emerges without the need for a particular symbolism. Double portraits are rare and always divided into two different canvases, such as the Equestrian Portrait of Anton Giulio Brignole-Sale, created Together with the Portrait of Paolina Adorno, Brignole-Sale marchesa Van Dyck’s special attention is to group portraits, such as the Lomellini family, and portraits of children. Even though Rubens is once again his constant reference, Van Dyck succeeds in making To radiate from his characters a greater detachment and the sense of grandeur that the great names of the rich aristocracy of the city want Show off
The children are taught with great skill, singly, as in the case of Portrait of Filippo Cattaneo and Portrait of Maddalena Cattaneo (already known as Clelia Cattaneo) or accompanied by their parents, such as the Portrait of a Genoese noblewoman with his son

In September 1627 he returned to his native Antwerp, recalled by the death of his sister Cornelia. The first months were characterized by a great religious production: Antoon, a fervent Catholic, joined the Brotherhood of Celibs, created by the Jesuits of Antwerp, who also commissioned him two d Altar, performed between 1629 and 1630 In this period the portraits of mythological character (Sansone and Dalila) are rare, while abounding those of a biblical-religious character, among which stand out the painting Estasi of St. Augustine, next to A canvas of Rubens and one of Jordaens and the Adoration of the Shepherds In addition to this, Van Dyck also performed six Crucifixions, a Lamentation on the Dead Christ and a Crowning of Thorns All these works are interspersed with a fervor and intense depths Mystics, but above all in the latter, there are preromantic notes in addition to the predominant baroque line

The fame of a great portraitist with whom he had returned from his stay in Italy allowed him to enter the service of the Archbishop Isabella of Habsburg, regent of the Netherlands on behalf of the king of Spain, of whom he became a court painter. Archiduchess, for whom he received in return a gold necklace and many members of his court. With the entrance to court he grew more and more his reputation as a portraitist. The tenants were very numerous and belonged to the great families of the nobility of Flanders and Of Brabant One of the greatest works of the time is the Portrait of Maria Luisa de Tassis, one of the richest families in northern Europe The noblewoman looks confident, aware of her beauty, with a precious and elaborate outfit In September 1631 Van Dyck received In her studio, the queen of France, Maria de ‘Medici, together with her younger son, Gastone d’Orléans, in exile, who had been portrayed. The queen left an account of Your visit to Van

Dyck, admitted to having seen in his collection various works by Titian Antoon, had managed to accumulate a large number of works of Italian painters: seventeen of Tiziano, two of Tintoretto, three of Anthonis Mor, three of Jacopo da Bassano and others Apart from Portraits of aristocratic characters, Van Dyck also portrayed artist friends such as the engraver Karel de Mallery, the musician Henricus Liberti and the painter Marin Rijckaert And despite the fact that Flanders and Holland were in war, Van Dyck managed to reach the court of L Aia, where he relocated Federico Enrico d’Orange with his wife and son Guglielmo. The prince also performed two canvases with subjects from Italian literature, Amarilli and Cranberry (from Guarini) and Rinaldo and Armida (from Tasso). Haarlem, met Frans Hals And during a second stay in Holland, between 1631 and 1632 he also met Federico V, former ex-king of Bohemia in exile, who commissioned the portraits of his two sons, Carlo Luigi And Rupert
From 1629 began the relationship between Van Dyck and King Charles I Through his intermediary Sir Endymion Porter, the king bought the canvas of mythological character Rinaldo and Armida

Charles I was one of the British sovereigns of the past and of his contemporaries in Europe, the one who most appreciated the pictorial art and who always proved to be a patron saint and patron of artists. The favorite painter of the king was Titian and in Van Dyck saw his Heir: Before the arrival of Van Dyck in London, many painters, such as Elder Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Elisabeth I, Daniel Mytens and Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen, were already working on the court of Charles. With the arrival of Van Dyck, All these painters disappeared Charles had finally found the court painter he wanted for years

A few years before, in 1628 Carlo had bought from the Duke of Mantua the great collection of paintings accumulated over the years by the Gonzaga, also known as protectors of internationally renowned artists. In addition, since his rise to the throne, Carlo I had tried to introduce His court artists of different nationalities, in particular Italians and Flemings In 1626 he was able to persuade him to move to London the Italian painter Orazio Gentileschi, who was appointed a court painter and who devoted, among other things, to the decoration of the House of Delights , Residence of Queen Enrichetta Maria in the city of Greenwich A few years later, in 1638, he also succeeded in bringing in the daughter of Orazio, Artemisia Gentileschi, whose paintings were still painted in Italy, the Self-Portrait as Paint

By April 1632, Van Dyck had come for the second time in England Accepted with all honors, he was introduced to the king, who had known years before as Prince of Wales, and took accommodation in London at the residence of Edward Norgate, Art writer, at the expense of the Crown He later changed his residence to settle in Blackfriars, far from the influence of the Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers, an important organization of London painters In this great house, the king’s gift, with a garden on the Thames, He received guests and often performed his paintings A few months later, on July 5, 1632, Charles I awarded him the noble title of baronetto, appointing him as a member of the Order of the Bath and guaranteed him an annuity of two hundred pounds, in addition to making his appointment official First court painter

However, in 1634, for about a year, Van Dyck decided to move to Antwerp and Brussels to visit the family After buying an estate in Antwerp, he was called to Brussels in April. He attended the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Hapsburg, brother of King Philip IV of Spain, new regent of the Spanish Netherlands Van Dyck repeatedly portrayed the new regent and numerous clergy and aristocracy representatives One of the most ambitious group portraits of these years is the Portrait of Count Johannes of Nassau Siegen and his family During his stay in Brussels he also met Tommaso Francesco di Savoia, the first prince of Carignano and general commander of Spanish forces in the Netherlands, performing a great equestrian portrait in which the prince appeared In all his majesty, holding firmly a beautiful white horse as he implements. This portrait was also a model for the portrait of the Count of Olivare With Diego Velazquez’s horse Shortly before his return to England, Van Dyck was called to perform a large group portrait depicting all members of the city council and the bourgeoisie, those who had the task of governing the city. The picture was intended for the hall Of the Brussels City Court During the French bombing in Brussels ordered by Marshal de Villeroi in 1695, the painting went to destruction

Returning to London, Van Dyck became part of the large group of Catholic courtiers faithful to Queen Enrichetta Maria, including Kenelm Digby and Endymion Porter. The king was portrayed countless times in single portraits, accompanied by the queen or the children. Famous of Charles with his family is the Greate Peece, of great size and depicting the king and the queen sitting: beside the ruler stands the little Charles, Prince of Wales, while in the arms of the Queen sits Giacomo, Duke of York The queen was equally demanding with Van Dyck, who retracted her in many canvases, including the most famous Queen Enrichetta Maria with Dwarf Jeffrey Hudson, where Enrichetta with hunting clothes is depicted in the company of her dwarf Jeffrey Hudson Alla Queen, rather low, Van Dyck softened the shape of the nose and jaw, emphasizing the smoothness of the complexion Charles also commissioned paintings depicting his children, like the three older sons of Carlo I, a portrait of the most noble nobility, suggestive and sumptuous, then sent by the queen to his sister the Duchess of Savoy and the five older sons of Charles I

In addition to painting, Antoon opened his house to the best nobility and entertained with musicians and buffs; He offered banks, servants, carriages, and horses One of the most attentive visitors to Van Dyck’s house was Charles I, who even made changes to the garden of his painter’s house so that he could easily reach the river. Van Dyck’s home also lived Her lover, Margaret Lemon, portrayed several times in allegorical and mythological robes. She is said to be so jealous of Antoon that once tried to hold a finger to prevent him from portraying her. In 1640 Antoon decided to take a wife and, Forty years old, married a Scottish noblewoman, Mary Ruthven, queen of queen. But her only activity in London was portrayalist, as he dreamed of a bigger project, a pictorial cycle of historical character. She had begun the realization of a Series of tapestries aimed at the exaltation of the ancient Order of the Garter, but did not follow when in May 1640 Ruben died S was offered to go to Antwerp to run his shop While he was leaving, he was told that King Louis XIII was looking for an artist who decorated the main halls of the Louvre Palace. It was what he was expecting from years; In January 1641 he went to Paris, returning to London in May On this occasion he painted the double portrait Portrait of Wilhelm II of Nassau-Orange and Princess Maria to celebrate the marriage between the two princes In October he went to Antwerp and then to New to Paris, where he received the news that Louvre’s decoration had been entrusted to Nicolas Poussin and Simon Vouet and where he was forced to refuse to execute a portrait of a cardinal (not known whether Richelieu or Mazzarino) To rush back to London The King sent his personal doctor to Van Dyck’s home, offering him three hundred pounds if he could save his painter’s life On December 1, 1641, Lady Van Dyck gave birth to their first daughter Justiniana A few days After Antoon made a will in favor of his daughter, wife, sisters and a natural daughter who had been in Antwerp On December 9, Antoon van Dyck died in his home of B Lackfriars and buried in the presence of the court in the Cathedral of St. Paul The tomb was destroyed a few years later, along with the Cathedral itself, in the Great Fire of London in 1666

Van Dyck’s story is in many respects similar to that of Raffaello: both died young people, both of whom died before seeing the atrocities of the Sacco di Roma, the other the civil war disorder Van Dyck died before seeing his Rebuilt and decapitated in front of his own Whitehall palace The king’s performance followed the dispersal of his artistic collection, which featured 1570 paintings, including the many performed by Van Dyck; Among the largest buyers Philip IV of Spain and Cardinal Giulio Mazzarino

Van Dyck was mainly a portraitist; But its works of religious and mythological nature must not be forgotten

The first contacts between Rubens and young Van Dyck date back to 1615, when Antoon had opened a personal workshop Many important painters in Antwerp, such as Frans Snyders, visited the shop, gave advice or simply to observe the work of young talents. Year after Antoon actually entered the Rubens workshop, which he had been able to admire the great blades retained in the town churches. During their collaboration period they used to act like this: Rubens was looking for buyers, preparing bills and preparatory drawings, but then Was Van Dyck and perform the painting Witnesses of this are the numerous works of the period, such as Decio’s Stories of Deity, and the Decoration of the Church of Jesus of Antwerp, Sacred Character According to some sources, Van Dyck was therefore Admirer and student of Rubens, but also an assistant and a friend, as would testify the Portrait of Isabella Brant, depicting the pri But Rubens’ wife, given to Antoon’s great painter and Van Dyck portraits by Rubens, who defined him as the best of his pupils. Other sources instead make Van Dyck appear to be a sincere admirer of Rubens in youth, identifying as A model for his paintings, but that over time had become too cumbersome in the small reality of Flanders, so much to force young Antoon to look for luck first in England, then in Italy, and also in Rubens when he saw the capacity Of the young student, who could have shaded his name, did everything to turn him away from Antwerp, obtaining letters of recommendation and granting him the help of rich gentlemen, both English and Italian as the Count of Arundel

At the beginning of his training in Van Balen’s shop, young Antoon was mainly involved in the realization of works of religious character. In the Anversa newly reconquered by Roman Catholicism, the most popular pictorial genre was the religious and biblical one. The first great commission Who received Van Dyck was commissioned to make paintings depicting the twelve apostles. By approaching Rubens’s shop, religious assignments were greatly raised. Representative paintings of sacred character in Van Dyck’s production were the canvas. The Emperor Theodosius and Holy Ambrose of 1619-20

This great canvas represents the encounter between sinner Theodosius I and Archbishop of Milan Ambrogio. For the construction of the canvas, Van Dyck referred to The Emperor Theodosius and Sant’Ambrogio, who had performed a few years ago with Rubens Differences appear clear: in the painting of Van Dyck, preserved in London and currently exhibited in Rome at Palazzo Venezia, the Emperor is without beard, the architectural background is more highlighted, and in addition to the pastoral, there are in the sky various weapons brought from Followed by Theodosius And while in Rubens’ canvas in Vienna’s canvas you can see portraits Christ and St. Peter, who underline the authority of Ambrose, and in Van Dyck’s cloak it is an example of great skill in the realization Embroidery and Embroidery Paintings Van Dyck’s addition is the dog, placed at the foot of the emperor The brushstrokes are, in the London painting, given with energy and vigor , Whereas in that Vienna appear softer and lighter

Not always present as religious paintings or portraits, mythological and historical paintings still accompany Van Dyck’s production During his collaboration with Rubens, Van Dyck was, for example, entrusted with a cycle of paintings that talked about and exalted The life and business of the Roman Decio Mure Among his most famous paintings The continence of Scipione and Sansone and Dalila After coming back from Italy and having seen numerous works by Titian, the execution of the subjects acquired a new different component due to ‘ Influenza of the Italian master The most famous painting of mythological character is undoubtedly the Love and Pische made for King Charles I and now the property of Queen Elizabeth II

I’m too obvious in this painting, like most of mythological ones, the references to the Italian Renaissance painting by Titian and Dosso Dossi A comparison with Titian’s Bacchus and Arianna is fundamental The subjects are represented with a delicacy sought after, Round brushstrokes and well-defined features Strong is also the allegorical component: Love is coming to save Psyche, after this, as Apuleius tells the Golden Bear, fell into a dead sleep Behind the body of Psyche, abandoned on a Rock with softness, there are two large trees, one lush, symbolizing life, the other arched and bare, symbolizing the thrilling spirit of death. This canvas is characterized by a strong sense of participation, inserted in a delicate and Lyrical idyllic atmosphere

The main activity of Van Dyck in Italy, and in Genoa in particular, was that of a portraitist. The Genoese nobility, who had known Rubens’s ability a few years earlier, did not want to miss the opportunity to be portrayed by the best pupil of the Flemish master Moreover Van Dyck’s relations with the Genoese aristocracy preceded his arrival at the Superba It is documented that the first portrait of a noble Genoese, that of Gio Agostino Balbi (portrait not yet identified or lost) has been Performed in Antwerp before the arrival of Van Dyck in Italy. It was in Genoa that Balbi had to give him the first orders, imitated by much of the local noble class. That is how Van Dyck had commissioned numerous portraits, singles or Group Fu on this occasion that Van Dyck proved to be very skilled in portraying children, family groups and men on horseback Among the group portraits of the The most popular Genovese genre is the Lomellini family

As with most of the portraits of the Genoese period, even in the case of Lomellini, they do not know for certain the names of the characters portrayed: it is supposed that they are the second wife, the two older children and the two younger sons of Giacomo Lomellini, then Doge Of the Republic of Genoa In the painting – among the most complex of those of the Italian period – the elder son of Doge, Nicolò, placed under a triumphal arch, is dressed in armor while holding in his hand a broken spear, a symbol of city defense (Then in war with the Savoy) while the woman and the children are represented under a statue of Venus Pudica, representing the defense of the family sphere

Not only in Genoa, however, Van Dyck had the opportunity to demonstrate his talent as a portraitist Even in some other stages of his stay in Italy, the master of Antwerp performed famous and beautiful portraits In Rome, in fact, he returned to Cardinal Bentivoglio in 1623 Palermo, in 1624, realized that of Viceroy Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy

During his stay in London, Van Dyck relocated numerous court and small nobility figures, as well as members of the royal family. Customers are often portrayed in full-length, such as the Portrait of Lord John and Lord Bernard Stuart or Portrait of Thomas Wentworth, Counts of Strafford, but often are seated or half-busted, like the portrait Dorothy Savage, Countess Andover and her sister Elizabeth, Lady Thimbleby One of the best and most interesting works of the English period is the portrait of Carlo Ludovico and Rupert , Palatine principles

The painting represents the two sons of the King of Winter Federico V, who came to the court of Uncle Carlo I in search of financial and military aid for his father in exile at The Hague Carlo Luigi, on the right, is the elder of the brothers, While Rupert, on the right, is the youngest Charles Louis, the most motivated in recovering the lost throne, represented with the military command stick in hand while directing the observer with a mid-point look between Rupert’s resignation and combatability, Slender than his brother, looks at the horizon with tired eyes and does not rest his hand on the sword like his brother, but approaches his torso with disrespect The first will do everything to recover his father’s dignity, fighting even against his uncle Carlo I, Who had refused military aid while the latter would remain in the English court and fight during the Civil War becoming one of the symbols of realistic fidelity

The character that appears several times in portraits by Van Dyck is undoubtedly Carlo I Stuart, king of England and his boom protector Van Dyck represented him surrounded by the family, with his wife Enrichetta, but above all the singles The paintings are of various size And the sovereign depicted in different poses: on horseback, as in the case of Charles I on horseback, on the whole figure, as in Le Roi à la chasse, busted like in King Charles I and Queen Enrichetta Maria and finally in multiple positions , As in Triple portrait of Charles I, then sent to Rome at Bernini’s shop The most ambitious portrait of Charles is the equestrian portrait in which the ruler appears in the company of his riding instructor

In the portrait of Charles I with his riding instructor M de Saint-Antonie, Van Dyck embodies the most solemn of the equestrian portraits of the sovereign: Charles is crossing a triumphal arch, from which heavy heavy drapes fall, dressed in armor and holds in Hand the command stick while riding a beautiful white horse If the description stopped at this point it would seem like a painting of some victorious general: but to point out that it is even the king the portrait character, Van Dyck puts the left of the sovereign his master of Riding, looking at them from below, with a gaze of submission and veneration; To the left, instead, a large coat of arms bearing the symbols of the real Stuart dynasty and an imposing crown. In addition to the overwhelming love of art, Carlo also saw it as a powerful means of political propaganda, especially in difficult years like those Just before the Civil War