Romanticism 1770 – 1850

Dominant cultural tendency in the Western world in the late 18th and early 19th centuries It caused a re-evaluation of the nature of art and the role of the artist in society Significantly, from the 1790s it was a self-proclaimed movement, the first such, and so initiated a tradition that has remained in Western culture since Romanticism was rejected or ignored by most of the major artists later seen as associated with it, but it nevertheless identified several key tendencies of the period Though hard to define precisely, it essentially involves: 1) placing emotion and intuition before (or at least on an equal footing with) reason; 2) a belief that there are crucial areas of experience neglected by the rational mind; and 3) a belief in the general importance of the individual, the personal and the subjective In fact it embodies a critique of that faith in progress and rationality that had characterized the main trend of Western thought and action since the Renaissance

Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850 Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, and the natural sciences It had a significant and complex effect on politics, and while for much of the Romantic period it was associated with liberalism and radicalism, its long-term effect on the growth of nationalism was perhaps more significant

Ernst Fries

Ernst Fries (born June 22, 1801 in Heidelberg, Kurpfalz, dead October 11, 1833 in Karlsruhe, Grand Duchy of Baden) was ...
Read More

Karl Friedrich Schinkel

Karl Friedrich Schinkel (born March 13, 1781 in Neuruppin, 9th October 1841 dead in Berlin), was one of the most ...
Read More

Johann Friedrich Overbeck

Johann Friedrich Overbeck (Lübeck, Germany, 3 July 1789 – 12 November 1869), was a German painter draftsman and illustrator. He ...
Read More

Karl Friedrich Lessing

Karl Friedrich Lessing (born 15 February 1808 in Breslau, died June 5, 1880 in Karlsruhe) was a German historical and ...
Read More

Carl Frederik von Breda

Carl Frederik von Breda (Stockholm, August 16, 1759 - December 1, 1818 ) was a Swedish painter. He is most ...
Read More

Botong Francisco

Carlos Villaluz Francisco (Angono, November 4, 1912 - March 31, 1969), also known as his nickname Botong, was a Filipino ...
Read More

Marià Fortuny

Marià Fortuny i Marsal (Reus, El Baix Camp, June 11, 1838 - Rome, November 21, 1874), was the leading Catalan ...
Read More

Antonio Fontanesi

Antonio Fontanesi (Reggio Emilia, February 23, 1818 - Turin, April 17, 1882) was an Italian painter and engraver who lived ...
Read More

Pedro Figari

Pedro Figari Solari (Montevideo, June 29, 1861 - July 24, 1938) was a Uruguayan painter, lawyer, writer, and journalist. One ...
Read More

Jūlijs Feders

Jūlijs Voldemārs Feders (June 19, 1838, Kokenhausen (now Koknese), Livonian province-January 19, 1909, Nizhyn, Chernigov province) was a Latvian painter, ...
Read More

François-Xavier Fabre

François-Xavier Fabre (born on April 1, 1766 and died on March 16, 1837 in Montpellier in France, baron in 1828), ...
Read More

Frederic Edwin Church

Frederic Edwin Church (born in Hartford, Connecticut on May 4, 1826 and died April 7, 1900 in Greenport, New York) ...
Read More

Albert Edelfelt

Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt (21 July 1854 Porvoo - 18 August 1905 Porvoo) was a Finnish painter, graphic artist and ...
Read More

Jules Dupré

Jules Dupré, (born in Nantes on April 5, 1811 and died at L'Isle-Adam on October 6, 1889). Dupré's colour is ...
Read More

Thomas Doughty

Thomas Doughty (Jul 19, 1793 - Jul 22, 1856) was an American artist of the Hudson River School. Born in ...
Read More

Eugène Devéria

Eugène François Marie Joseph Devéria, born in Paris on April 22, 1805 and died in Pau on February 3, 1865, ...
Read More

Paul Delaroche

Paul Delaroche (Paris, 17 July 1797 – 4 November 1856) was a French painter who achieved his greater successes painting ...
Read More

Eugène Delacroix

Eugène Delacroix is ​​a French painter born in 1798 in Charenton-Saint-Maurice and died in 1863 in Paris. Noticed at the ...
Read More

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps

Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps, born in Paris on March 3, 1803 and died in Fontainebleau on August 22, 1860, is a French ...
Read More

Gustave Courbet

Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism movement ...
Read More

Piero di Cosimo

Piero di Cosimo, or more correctly Piero di Lorenzo (Florence, circa 1461 - Florence, April 12, 1522), was an Italian ...
Read More

Barend Cornelis Koekkoek

Koekkoek, Barend Cornelis (Oct 11, 1803 - Apr 5, 1862) was a Dutch landscape artist and father of Johannes Hermanus ...
Read More

Thomas Cooper Gotch

Thomas Cooper Gotch or TC Gotch (Dec 10, 1854 - May 1, 1931) was an English Pre-Raphaelite painter and book ...
Read More

Thomas Cole

Thomas Cole (Feb 1, 1801 - Feb 11, 1848) was an American artist. He is regarded as the founder of ...
Read More
Loading...

The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu) In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism

Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of “heroic” individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism

In the visual arts, Romanticism first showed itself in landscape painting, where from as early as the 1760s British artists began to turn to wilder landscapes and storms, and Gothic architecture, even if they had to make do with Wales as a setting Caspar David Friedrich and J M W Turner were born less than a year apart in 1774 and 1775 respectively and were to take German and English landscape painting to their extremes of Romanticism, but both their artistic sensibilities were formed when forms of Romanticism was already strongly present in art John Constable, born in 1776, stayed closer to the English landscape tradition, but in his largest “six-footers” insisted on the heroic status of a patch of the working countryside where he had grown up—challenging the traditional hierarchy of genres, which relegated landscape painting to a low status Turner also painted very large landscapes, and above all, seascapes Some of these large paintings had contemporary settings and staffage, but others had small figures that turned the work into history painting in the manner of Claude Lorrain, like Salvator Rosa a late Baroque artist whose landscapes had elements that Romantic painters repeatedly turned to Friedrich often used single figures, or features like crosses, set alone amidst a huge landscape, “making them images of the transitoriness of human life and the premonition of death”