Düsseldorf school of painting 1820 – 1860

The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Academy (now the Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf or Düsseldorf State Art Academy) in the 1830s and 1840s, when the Academy was directed by the painter Wilhelm von Schadow The work of the Düsseldorf School is characterized by finely detailed yet fanciful landscapes, often with religious or allegorical stories set in the landscapes Leading members of the Düsseldorf School advocated “plein air painting”, and tended to use a palette with relatively subdued and even colors The Düsseldorf School grew out of and was a part of the German Romantic movement Prominent members of the Düsselorf School included von Schadow, Karl Friedrich Lessing, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Andreas Achenbach, Hans Fredrik Gude, Oswald Achenbach, and Adolf Schrödter

The art-historical term “Düsseldorfer Malerschool”, also known as “Düsseldorfer Schule” , refers to a group of painters who were educated at the Royal Prussian Academy of Fine Arts in Düsseldorf, especially from 1819 to 1918 Art academy took private lessons or worked in the vicinity of the Kunstakademie

The Düsseldorf School had a significant influence on the Hudson River School in the United States, and many prominent Americans trained at the Düsseldorf Academy and show the influence of the Düsseldorf School, including George Caleb Bingham, David Edward Cronin, Eastman Johnson, Worthington Whittredge, Richard Caton Woodville, William Stanley Haseltine, James McDougal Hart, Helen Searle, and William Morris Hunt, as well as German émigré Emanuel Leutze Albert Bierstadt applied but was not accepted His American friend Worthington Whittredge became his teacher while attending Düsseldorf

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The first academy directors, Peter von Cornelius and Wilhelm von Schadow, characterized the initially closer orientation of the educational institution in the sense of the Nazarene movement and of classicism The themes that they arranged according to the classical genre hierarchy included those of mythology, Christianity, important historical themes as well as landscape painting The trend of Romanticism in Germany was growing rapidly, and its entry into the Academy took place Under the influence of Vormarz, however, the Academy’s program and its artistic environment soon broadened into the breadth of romantic and further currents, so that a realistic, societal criticism of art as well as landscape and genre painting became more and more important Amongst the pictorial themes and styles of the painting school, “historical painting, landscape, genre and still life are represented in all facets”, which played a role in the “bourgeois-determined art of the 19th century” Through reviews, publications and exhibitions, through the dissemination of works across the international art market, especially to London, Amsterdam, Brussels, Paris, Chicago and New York, through travel, friendship and family connections and the partial global school and career careers of theirs Protagonists exhilarated the work of the Düsseldorf painter’s school, especially in the period between 1830 and 1870, but also in later decades of the 19th century The painters, trained in Düsseldorf, gave their artistic techniques, attitudes, teaching methods, subjects, topoi and discourses further in other art academies and in the emerging artists’ colonies Düsseldorf’s landscape and genre painting in particular was a leading and stylistic figure for many years The international reputation of the Düsseldorf School of Painting among Germany’s artistic education centers was only surpassed by the Bauhaus