Indian vernacular architecture the informal, functional architecture of structures, often in rural areas of India, built of local materials and designed to meet the needs of the local people. The builders of these structures are unschooled in formal architectural design and their work reflects the rich diversity of India’s climate, locally available building materials, and the intricate variations in local social customs and craftsmanship. It has been estimated that worldwide close to 90% of all building is vernacular, meaning that it is for daily use for ordinary, local people and built by local craftsmen.
The term “vernacular architecture” in general refers to the informal building of structures through traditional building methods by local builders without using the services of a professional architect. It is the most widespread form of building.
The Indian Vernacular Architecture has evolved over time through skilled artisans of local residents. Despite its variety, this architecture can be divided into more or less three categories.
A kachcha is a building made of natural materials such as clay, grass, bamboo, straw or rods and thus is a life-short structure. Seeing that it has not been built to live long it requires maintenance and ongoing reconstruction. The practical limitations of available construction materials dictate a special shape that can have a simple charm. The advantage of a kachcha is that construction materials are easily accessible and easily available and require relatively little work.
A plaster is a structure made of resistant materials, such as stone or brick forms, clay tiles, metals or other resistant materials, sometimes using mortar to bond, which does not require continuous maintenance or replacement. However, such structures are costly because the materials are expensive and require more work. A pack (or sometimes “pukka”) can be well-decorated in contrast to a kachcha .
A combination of kachcha style and pukka , semi- pukka , has evolved as villagers have provided resources to add resilient building elements to the character of a pukka . Architecture as it always evolves organically according to the changing needs and resources of its inhabitants.
Toda huts called dogles are shacks built by Tribu Toda in Southern India. Tribu Toda is a small tribal community living isolated on the Nilgiri plain in the hilly area of southern India. Before the eighteenth century and British colonization, Toda coexisted with other ethnic communities, including the Kota and Kuruba scaffold, in a broad society like caste, in which the Toda tribe was ranked at the top.
Toda huts are a closed oval construction. They are usually 3 m high, 5.5 m long and 2.7 m wide. They are built with bamboo-related bamboo (Calamoideae plant) and covered with straw. Thicker bones of bamboo are waved to give the huts their basic form, while the thinest reeds (from the rattani) are closely related and parallel to each other on this skeleton. And over this thou hast set the grass as the straw for the roof. Each hut is surrounded by a large stone wall. The Toda Tribe lives traditionally in pothole settlements, consisting of three to seven small, flat-haired flats, built in the form of semi-barges and located along the pasture sites, where they had softened buah. The front and back of the cabin are usually made of coated stones (mainly granite). At the front of the cabin there is a small entrance – about 90 cm wide and 90 cm high, through which people should stretch to enter. This unusually small entry becomes a way of protection from wildlife. The front part of the hut is decorated with Toda art forms, a kind of rocky mural painting. Toda temples are built in a circular pit surrounded by stones. They are similar in appearance and construction with Toda huts. Women are not allowed to enter or approach these shacks as temples. Though many Toda have abandoned their traditional huts for concrete-made homes, at the beginning of the 21st century a move was made to construct semi-baroque traditional huts. From 1995 to 2005, there were built forty new huts in this style and many Toda dairies were reconstructed. Each of them has a narrow stone hole around it and the small door is held closed with a heavy stone. Within it is allowed to enter only the priest. It is used for preserving the buckwheat’s milk.
Havel is a general term used for residential homes and apartments in India , Pakistan , Nepal and Bangladesh, usually one of historical and architectural significance. The word haveli comes from haveli arabic, meaning “partition” or “private space” made public under the Mogul Rule and disconnected from any architectural tradition. Later, the word haveli began to be used as a general term for various styles of regional housing, civic houses and temples located in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh.
Traditional houses with a courtyard in South Asia are built according to ancient principles of Vastu shastras , claiming that all spaces come from a single point, the center of the house. Yards are a common feature in South Asian Architecture. The earliest archeological evidence of yard houses in the region dates from the years 2600 to 2450 BC The traditional houses in South Asia are built around the yard and all family activities revolve around chowk or yard. Moreover, the yard served as a lighting well and one to accomplish an effective airing strategy in South Asia’s hot and dry climate. During the Middle Ages, the term Haveli was first used in the Rajputana region of Raxhastani by the Vaishnava sect to refer to their temples in the Gujarati under the Mogul Empire and the Rajputana kingdoms. Later, the general term haveli was identified with commercial houses and dwellings of the commercial class.
Socio-cultural aspects: Chowku or courtyard served as a center of ceremonies and rituals. The holy tulip plant was placed here and worshiped daily to bring prosperity to the home.
Security and privacy: Chowku, from time to time, divided the areas for men and women by enabling them more privacy.
Climate: Addressing the empty space in the design of the building to respond to the local climate. Air circulation caused by temperature changes was used through the natural ventilation of the building.
Activities at different times: Use of the yard during the day, mainly by women, to perform their jobs and interact with other women in private uncovered spaces. Commercial class flats had more than one yard.
Space articulation: In Mor chowk, the Udaipur City Palace, the concept of the yard is like a dance hall. Similarly, in havel, a yard has many functions, usually used for weddings and celebrations.
Materials: baked bricks, sandstone, marble, wood, stucco and granite are commonly used materials. Decorative facets are influenced by local cultures and traditions.
All these elements come together to form a siege that gives the yard a sense of rule and security. Architectural design of havel construction has evolved in response to climate, lifestyle and availability of materials. In hot climates where refreshment is a need, the buildings with inner porches were considered the most suitable. It acted as a perfect refreshing technique, while also allowing the light inside. Harkada along the yard, or the high wall around it, kept the interior of the fresh buildings. Many of India and Pakistan’s havers were influenced by Raxhastani Architecture . They usually contain a yard often with a centered crown. The old towns of Agras , Lucknow and Delhit in India and Lahore , Multani, Peshawari , Hyderabadi in Pakistan have many examples of Raxhastani Architectural Style havelas.
Famous Havel in India
The Haveli term was first applied to the Rajputana region of Raxhastani by the Vaishnava sect to refer to their temples in Gujarati . In the northern part of India. Havel for Mr. Krishna are predominant with huge buildings as dwellings. Havel are remarkable for their frescoes featuring images of gods, animals, scenes from British colonization and narratives of the life of the deities Rama and Krishna . The music here was known as Haveli Sangeet. Later these temples and frescoes were imitated as large individual dwellings were built and now the word is popular to determine the dwellings themselves. Between the 1830s and the 1930s, the Marbles built buildings in their hometown, Shekhawati and Marwar. These buildings were called haveli . The Marbles agreed artists to paint those buildings that were heavily influenced by Mogule Architecture . Havel were marble status symbols as well as homes for their large families, providing security and comfort in closing off from the outside world. Havel ‘s closed from all sides had a major gateway.
The typical Havel in Shekhawati consisted of two yards – one out of the men who served as a large entrance and interior, women’s area. Larger heights may have up to three or four yards and were two or three floors. Many haveles are already empty or maintained by a guard (usually an old man). While many others have become hotels and attractive tourist sites. The towns and villages of Shekhawat are famous for their beautiful frescoes on the walls of their magnificent havelands, which are becoming important tourist attraction. Havel inside and around Jaisalmer Fortress (also known as the Golden Fortress), located in Jaisalmer of Raxhastan, of which the three most impressive are Patwon Ki Haveli, Salim Singh Ki Haveli and Nathmal-Ki Haveli, deserve to be highlighted . These were the refined houses of the wealthy merchants of Jaisalmer . Extravagant sculptures in sandstones with endless details and then precisely fused into different models each louder than the other agreed to decide to show the status and property of the owner. Around Jaisalmer , they are typically sculpted of yellow sandstone. They are often characterized by sashes, frescoes, jharokha (balconies) and vaults. Patwon Ji out Haveli is the most important and greatest, just like the first built in Jaisalmer. It is not a single havel but a complex of 5 havelis small. The first in the queue is also the most popular and is known as Patwa Haveli of Kothar. The first among them agreed and built in 1805 by Guman Chand Patwa, then a wealthy merchant of refined stolen and brocade that is the largest and most exaggerated. Patwa was a wealthy man and a prominent merchant of his time and could thus afford to build separate buildings for each of the five boys. These were completed over a period of 50 years. The fifth buildings were built in the first 60 years of the 19th century. Patwon Ji Ki is prominent for his ornamental murals , jharokhat (balconies) sculpted in yellow sandstone, porticoes and arches. Although the building itself is made of sandstone yellow, the main portico is brown.
Chabutro , Chabutaro or Chabutra is a structure found mostly in the villages of the Indian state of Gujarati . It is an octagonal corner-shaped structure with a five-pointed octagonal top. In the upper closure there are plenty of holes where birds can make their nests. In Gujarati these are built at the entrances of the villages, especially for the lodging of doves. Within this structure, mainly pigeons stay and handle. These monuments are mainly found in village centers or at the entrances of the Gujarati and Kutch villages of India . According to the structure usually stands a platform. The base and surrounding area of this structure serves as a gathering place and as an area for children to play. Another Swabian type, which can be seen in Gujarat and Raxhastan, has different designs and are built only as a place of food and residence for birds and not for breeding purposes. The overhead cover of such a Swing is figuratively sculpted and designed as a tapered cube or catharic window .
In English these structures can be called unambiguously “Pigeon-Tower” or “Pigeon-hole-tower”. Currently, Çabutaro is a word of gujarati language , in which the dove is called Kabutar . The Chabutro word derived from the word Kabutar , after Çabutaro is specifically built for the use and breeding of pigeons only in Gujarati , especially in Kutch. The Chabutra or Chabutro word is used occasionally to indicate a sitting platform, usually under a tree or supporting a lake, basin or other place with water, but nevertheless is often used to denote the tower structures as explained above.
The inhabitants, and especially the Gujarati women belonging to the Hindu faith, consider the feeding of doves sufficiently prosperous. In this way, this structure is done in villages where pigeons can live. Early in the morning, women, children, and other people can be found feeding the pigeons beneath Cabbage . Chabutarah is thus found in the villages dominated by the Hindu, Kshatriya, and Gujarati brahmins.
For example, in the Kutchi district of Gujarat, Chabutro can be found normally in almost all the villages of Mistris, a clan and Hindu Kshatriya , who were themselves masters specializing in the construction of such structures. For example, Chabutrojo in Sinugra of Kutch, in the image shown at the beginning. A famous example of Chabutros found outside the Gujarati is found in Cathaygar . A little further away from Raigarh Railway Station in Çatisgar stands a huge white Chabutro as a symbol of the city. The establishment of which was made by a city Shyamji Gangji Sawaria in the year 1900. He was a famous railway contractor and entrepreneur of Raigarh, the scummer of Shyam Talkies, coming from the Kunghari Mistri community in Kutch. Çabutro can also be seen in Raxhastan and Madia Pradesh. Here they are called Chabutra. Çabutra is the Hindi language word for Çabutron. In these states of India, they are usually found within the Royal Palace or the Temples. But in other countries other than Gujarati, Cabutrot are not exclusively built for pigeons but used for all kinds of birds. Though also in Hindi the dove is also called Kabutar .
The construction material depends on the location. In hilly places where rocky pebbles, stones and stone parts are available, these can be joined with mud mortar or to form walls. The exterior is polished with smooth stone work. Sometimes wooden beams and mahogany are used with stone tiles for the roof if available. Houses on the hills usually have two floors, with livestock living on the ground floor. Often a veranda extends along the house. The roof is steep to withstand the monsoon season and the house could stand on raised plinth or bamboo sticks to cope with the waters. On flat terrains, dwellings are usually made of clay or brick-dried bark, then plastered inside and out, sometimes with mud mixed with straw or cow’s dung and lime-plated. Where bamboo is available (mainly in the vertebrates and north-eastern states) it is widely used for all parts of the home as it is flexible and elastic. Widely used is also straw from plants such as elephant, rice and arrakocos. In the south, clay tiles are used for rooftop roofs, while various plant materials such as arrakos palms are common to Kamchatkan .
Vernacular Architecture of Bengal
Bengal Terracotta Temples
Though there are a host of testimonies of human settlements in Bengal since prehistoric times there is a sad shortage of archaeological evidence. This is because of the Bengalian soil structure. The widespread community on the alluvial plateau of the entire powerful Gangut and Brahmaputras river region is vulnerable to flooding and the resulting unstable geo-graphic pattern. The only regions somewhat untouched by the floods are the western Chota Nagpuri and the hills of the Himalayas of the east and the north. This ground structure is reflected in the selected building material by the Bengali temple designers. Mostly terracotta temples with refined surface decorations and inscriptions in Nagari’s alphabets. The roof structure has also been affected by the severe floods of the Gang and Terai delta proving during the monsoons, has effectively been curved most of the time to get rid of the large amount of water as quickly as possible and so thus increasing the lifespan of the structure. Architectural evidence has generally been formed by the Gupta Empire Period and onward. There have been recent discoveries of terracotta tiles from the times of Chandraketugar and Mahasthangarh that shed further light on the architectural styles of the Shunga and Gupta periods. In addition to Palavi and Phamsana’s influence on architectural style, it is also closely linked to the Bhanja style of temples from the Mayrigan district of Orris. But the temples of Southern Bengal are a peculiarity due to its unparalleled roof style and closely linked to traditional style buildings covered with rice bushes in rural Bengal. Bishnupuri in the southern district of Bankur of Western Bengal has a series of temples that are built by the Malla Dynasty, are examples of this style. Most of these temples are covered on the outer surface with terracotta reliefs that contain a multitude of centuries-old materials that make these important to rebuild social fabric from these times. Temple structures contain pyramidal steep roofs that are informally called chala. For example, a pyramidal pyramid roof with an eight-page pyramid structure with the so-called “ath chala” or literally eight-page roof. Often there is more than one tower in the temple building. These are made of latex and tulle, leaving them under the mercy of the harsh weather conditions of Southern Bengal. Dakshineswar Kali Temple is one of Bhanja-style examples, while the smaller Shiva Shrines along the river bank are examples of the southern Bengal’s roof style, albeit in much smaller proportions.
Buildings of ‘bungalow’ styles
The Genesis and Bungalow have its roots in the Bengal region. The term baṅgalo , meaning “Bengali” and used for a “Bengali Style House”. Such houses were traditionally very small, only one storey or detached and had a large veranda adopted by the British, who used them as houses for colonial administration in summer summer vacations in the Himalayan region and groups of cities outside of India. The style of Bungalow homes is very popular in rural Bengal. In rural Bangladesh , they are often called “Bangla Ghar” (bengal-style houses). The main building material used in modern times is the crumpled steel sheets. Previously they were built with wood, bamboo and a straw called “Khar”. Khari was used on the roofs of the Bungalow House and kept the house cool on the hot summer days. Another material for Bungalow’s homes were and red clay tiles.
Vernacular Architecture in Kerala
The evolution of Kerala’s home architecture closely follows the trend of development in temple architecture. Primitive models were bamboo skeletons, leafy leaf roofs in simple circular, square or rectangular shapes. The rectangular shape with a roof with a roof seems to have evolved from functional considerations. Structurally the skeleton of the roof was placed over the pillar on the walls raised from the ground for protection against humidity and insects in the tropical climate.
Often the walls were also of available wood in the region. The roof skeleton consisted of wall mounts that held the bottom edges of the mahune, the upper edges were connected to the spinal rib. The weight of the tops and the covering of the roof created a flexion on the spinal rib when the spinal part of the roof was made of flexible materials such as bamboo. This bend, however, remained as a symbol of roof construction even when using solid wood for the skeleton of the roof. Further, the triangular windows evolved into two ends to enable the tanning of the attic when the ceiling was included in the room’s space. This provided air circulation and thermal control for the roof. The lower edges of the swords, designed far beyond the walls to shade the walls from the sun and protect them from rain. The closed form of Kerala homes thus evolved from technical considerations. The surprising resemblance of this form with the temple structure can be distinguished. Blinds, the lower part is called adisthana, though it is simple or slightly embellished.
Sthambat or columns and bushes or walls are a feature of a simple, out-and-out shape. The main door is oriented in a cardinal direction and the windows are small and made like wood-drilled screens. The rectangular plan is usually divided into two or three living rooms with a frontal entry. The shelves cover a veranda surrounding it. By the tenth century, the theory and practice of home architecture was codified in books such as Manushyalaya Chandrika and Vastu vidya. This effort to standardize housing construction fits different socio-economic groups and strengthened the tradition of construction among artisans. Traditional artisans, especially carpenters, retained their knowledge by strictly following the canonical rules of the proportions of various elements as well as building details to this day. In essence, Kerala’s household architecture followed the style of construction;the rows of homes that are seen in other parts of India are neither mentioned in the Kerala texts nor placed in practice except in the sanketam occupied by Tamil or Brahman Konkini. In its most developed form the typical home of Kerala is of a yard type – nalukettu. The central courtyard is a living space that can host some cultural worship facilities as a bed for tulssi or jasmine (mullathara). The four halls surrounding the yard, identical to the nalambalamin temples, can be divided into many rooms for activities such as cooking, eating, sleeping, studying, storing grain, etc.Depending on the size and importance of the family, the house may have one or two upper floors (malika) or other yard encircled by the repetition of nalukett to form the etukettu (eight-story building) or such a yard.
Nālukettu është shtëpia tipike fermere e Tharavadus ku jetonin shumë breza të një familjeje të linjës matriarkale. Këto tipe ndërtesash gjenden tipikisht në shtetin indian të Keralës. Arkitektura tradicionale është në mënyrë tipike një strukturë drejtkëndore ku katër blloqe janë bashkangjitur me një oborr qendror të hapur ndaj qiellit. Katër sallat e anëve janë emërtuar Vadakkini (blloku verior), Padinjattini (blloku perëndimor), Kizhakkini (blloku lindor) dhe Thekkini (blloku lindor). Arkitektura ishte veçanërisht e përshtatur për familjet e mëdha të Tharavadut tradicional, për të jetuar nën të njëjtën çati dhe për të gëzuar të njëjtat shërbime të fermere marumakkathayam.
Elementet e Nalukettut
It is a structure that features a door that forms a part of the composite wall for a tiled roof top. It is the formal entrance to the home complex. Now the door is not there as the car will enter the home through the entrance. The tiled roof is again favorably fitted with a traditional type lamp underneath the roof. Instead of the entrance door, there is now a portico.
It’s the main portico right after the stairs of the house. Traditionally there is a tilted tiled roof that is held by the column. The sides are open and in the early times, the head of the house was called Karanavar , usually sitting here in a chair lying on thuppal cologne by the chair. This chair will have long sides on both sides where Karanavari will keep his feet raised to stay comfortable.
From Poomukhami, a veranda on either side of the house across an open cross is called Veranda Chuttu. The Chuttu Veranda has hanging lights at an equal distance hanging from its sloping roof.
On the side of the Chuttu and Poomukham Verandas, a wood bank with engraved decorative seating, called Charupady. Traditionally, family members or visitors were wont to sit on these charupads to talk.
Ambal Kulami (basin)
At the end of the Chuttu Veranda, there was usually a small, pebble an anchored basin where the lilies or Ambali were usually planted. Water basins were maintained to synthesize the energy flow inside.
Traditionally Nadumuttomi or open central yard is Nalukett’s main center. In the middle of the house, there is an open square area that divides the house into four wings. Because of this division on the four wings of the house we have a Nadumuttom. Similarly there were Ettu kettu and Pathinaru foxes that are quite rare, respectively with two or four Nadumuttom.
Nadumuttomi will normally be open to the sky, allowing the light of the sun and the rain to enter. This is to allow natural energies to circulate inside the house and to allow positive vibration inside. A turnip or tree will normally be overgrown in the center of the Nadumuttom, used for worship. In a logical architectural way is to allow the tree to act as a natural air purifier.
The Puxha room should preferably be in the northwest corner of the house. Divine statues can be deployed from the east or west, and the person who prays can be directed respectively from the west or from the east. On the walls of the Puja Chamber are wooden panels and the standard design for the Puxha House can be given to clients interested in having a traditional Puxha room.
Types of nalukettut
The altered can be distinguished based on the type of structure and the caste of its occupants.
Based on the structure
The altered are mostly distinguished based on their structure. Traditionally nalukettu has a courtyard with 4 blocks / halls built around it in the cardinal directions. However some nalukettu have 2 yards, which are known as Ettukettu (eight block structure) as they have 8 blocks in cardinal directions. Some top structures have 4 yards, which are thus known as Patinarukettu (structure with 16 blocks). While nalukett and etukettut are more common, pathinarukettut are extremely rare, due to their enormous size. In this way nalukett can be distinguished based on the height and number of their floors. Some nalukettu are one-story and made entirely of wood.The others are two-story or sometimes even three-storey and have walls made of latex and clay.
Based on caste
The term used for nalukett dallon based on caste or the social status of its inhabitants.
For the nauras and other feudal masters, most of the messengers are referred to as Tharavadu .
For upper classes Ezhava and Thiyya, their nalukett are referred to as Madom , Meda and Tharavadu .
For Kshatriyat, their residences are referred to as Kovilakoma and Kottarama .
For Syriac Christians, their residences are referred to as Meda and Veedu .
For Nampoothiri communities, their residences are referred to as Illama .
Homes-Boats of Kerala
Kettuvallami is a boat-house widely used in the Indian state of Kerala . These constructions are covered with straw roof over the wooden structure. The traditional Kettuvallami is mainly used to promote Kerala’s Tourism .
A kettuvallam is about 30.5 meters long and has a width of about 4 meters in the middle. The materials used for their construction are local and environmentally friendly; bamboo sticks, ribbon fiber, ropes, bamboo wool, wallpaper etc. The main wood used is “Anjili” ( Artocarpus hirsuta ). There are house-boats with single room, two rooms and three fully furnished rooms. The main body of the boat is a series of tree trunks, united using ribbed fiber ropes. The body is made up of hundreds of thin, but wooden-fiber-reinforced trunks (without using even a single nail). This skeleton is then smeared with a black caustic resin drawn from the cores of the cashew nuts. And it resists for entire generations. Today’s Foxes are motorized and used for deep waters through bogs. Long bamboo sticks or ‘punt’ are used to guide them to shallow areas. Bamboo is used for the skeleton of the roof and cut of bamboo sticks used for sheltering the shelter and the roof. Basically, the kettuvallami was designed to carry loads and as such the design has undergone many changes to make it a tourist tool. The height of the roof rose to have enough interior space. A skid was placed along the entire length for ease of walking and comfortable lowering, to reduce the curved body shape disadvantages. Windows and other openings allow lighting, air circulation and viewing. The entrance is realized at the center of the linear axis with a hanging head panel. Most of the latest designs have included three bedrooms with toilets, a living space and kitchen. Of course there are different variations. Some have a smaller number of rooms, but with a larger living space and perhaps a balcony on the roof level. Normally, the platforms used by the body of the boat are used as balconies. Innovative changes have been made to incorporate modern equipment. For laying of toilets, showers and ceramic floors, a concrete slab is placed on the floor level. These toilets are made of steel cabins with a steel mesh ring over which useful bacteria grow with the help of a catalyst called aktizing. These bacteria are fed with human extinction and produce a harmless and colorless substance.The groundbreaking toilet tubes are seized through the body of the boat and are discharged into the underwater waters. The use of bio toilets nowadays is commonplace. Thus, domestic water canals are not polluted. The water for use is stored in a plastic receptacle kept on the main part of the main body connected to the kitchen and toiletries. Tubes, deposits and other synthetic materials are covered with ribbon or panambus fiber to maintain the aesthetic quality of environmentally friendly materials.deposits and other synthetic materials are covered with ribbed fiber or panambu to maintain the aesthetic quality of environmentally friendly materials.deposits and other synthetic materials are covered with ribbed fiber or panambu to maintain the aesthetic quality of environmentally friendly materials. Modern boat homes are designed to comply with the Green Palm / Gold Star certifications from the Kerala Government Tourism Department, which has recently set up arrangements by setting standards for Kerala or Kettuvallama home-boats.
Years ago, AG Sudhakarani built the first fishing boat and Koch ‘s first ever junkyard that was located between the Fort of Koch and Vypeen. Consequently, Samudra Shipyard (P) Limited, Aroor, managed by his sons, has shaped another innovative holiday idea – a traditional kettuvallam made of glass wool. This is the first of its kind in India .
Kerala settled among the `50 destinations of a lifetime ‘by National Geographic Traveler in a special edition published just before the end of the millennium. The Hindu newspaper wrote: “A crocodile along the panorama of the lagoons, along the picturesque lakes, the palm trees and the glittering streams of” God’s Place “is the most fascinating experience of vacation in the country. With a crocodile along the palm-lined waterways that are becoming part of the holiday itineraries, the traditional kettuvallami has emerged as the mascot of Kerala Tourism. ” More than 900 kettuvallama lie in the inland waters and follow different itineraries popular among tourists. Alappuzha is the castle of boats. Of these, about 120 are kept and are perfected as luxury lines. Houseboats have all the conveniences of a good hotel: well-equipped sleeping rooms, modern hygienic bathrooms, comfortable living rooms, a beautiful kitchen and in some cases even a balcony to stay. The crew of a kettuvallami includes two rapists and one chef. Fresh food, cooked in unmatched style Kuttanadan is the preference of international tourists. Tourists can choose for a day cruiser or a nightclub in a boat-house. Most tourists prefer to stay overnight at a boat-house or kettuvallam as it offers a holistic navigation experience. Tour operators have introduced innovative options. The Kannuri District Tourism Council has launched a ‘Nadi Darshan’ program about a private resort in Kattampalli as an initiative to popularize kattuvallam for promoting tourism and as an effort to make people know more around the Valapattanam River, one of the largest rivers in the region and the life span of the district. A seafood restaurant opened in a kettuvallam on the Kaloor – Kadvanthra road.
Source From Wikipedia