William Barak

William Barak (1824 – Aug 15, 1903), was the last traditional ngurungaeta of the Wurundjeri-willam clan, first inhabitants of present-day Melbourne, Australia. He became an influential spokesman for Aboriginal social justice and an important informant on Wurundjeri cultural lore.

Barak was born in the early 1820s at Brushy Creek near present-day Croydon, in the country of the Wurundjeri people. His mother, Tooterrie, came from the Nourailum bulluk at Murchison, Victoria. His father, Bebejern, was an important member of the Wurundjeri clan. Barak was said to have been present as a boy when John Batman met with the tribal elders to ‘purchase’ the Melbourne area in 1835. Before he died he described witnessing the signing of the treaty in a ceremony he called a tanderem.

Ninggalobin, Poleorong and Billibellary were the leading song makers and principal Wurundjeri leaders in the Melbourne region. European colonisation had caused disruptions to initiation ceremonies. In response these three men gathered at South Yarra in the late 1830s and inducted the young William Barak into Aboriginal lore. This entailed formally presenting Barak with the symbols of manhood: strips of possum skin tied around his biceps; the gombert (reed necklace) around his neck; given his ilbi-jerri, a sharp and narrow bone or nose-peg; and his branjep, the apron worn by men to cover their genitals. At the end of the ceremony Barak presented his uncle, Billibellary, a possumskin cloak.

Barak attended the government’s Yarra Mission School from 1837 to 1839.

When he joined the Native Mounted Police in 1844, he was given the name of William Barak. He was Police Trooper No.19.

In early 1863, Barak moved to Coranderrk Station, near Healesville, Victoria with about thirty others.

Upon the death of Simon Wonga in 1875, Barak became the Ngurungaeta of the clan. He worked tirelessly for his people and was a successful negotiator on their behalf. He was a highly respected man and leader, with standing amongst the Indigenous people and the European settlers.

Barak died at Coranderrk in 1903 and is buried at the Coranderrk cemetery. He was about 85 years old.