Resort architecture or Bäder architecture (German: Bäderarchitektur) is an architectural style that is especially characteristic of spas and seaside resorts on the German Baltic coast. The style evolved since the foundation of Heiligendamm in 1793, and flourished especially around the year 1870, when resorts were connected to big cities via railway lines. Until today, many buildings on the German coasts are built in the style or feature distinct elements of resort architecture.
Single free-standing mansions featuring resort architecture are also called Bädervilla (plural Bädervillen), translating as Resort Mansion or Spa Villa.
The architecture of inland health spas in Central Europe (i.e. those away from the coast), in Thuringia, the Czech Republic or Switzerland for instance, is generally referred to as spa architecture (Kurarchitektur).
This architectural style was first applied in the Seebad Heiligendamm, founded in 1793, on the Mecklenburg Baltic coast, the oldest seaside resort on the European continent. The style spread quickly along the German Baltic Sea coast, since 1810 for the first time in Pomerania with the founding of the seaside resort of Putbus – Lauterbach on Rügen . Isolated buildings are also located on the North Sea coast .
Begun in the style of classicism , the spa architecture developed over the historicism to Art Nouveau . It is not a self-contained style epoch such as the Renaissance or the Baroque . Its peculiarity is the combination of different architectural features in their respective epochs. The special composition of the stylistic elements makes the resort architecture to a distinctive design.
Outside of Germany there are buildings inspired by the resort architecture, for example on Swiss lakes. The architecture of inland spas is usually referred to as spa architecture . There are many parallels between it
The architectural style of resort architecture was initially developed since the foundation of Heiligendamm in Mecklenburg in 1793, the first continental European seaside resort, as a style mixture that should appeal to the upper class, like the aristocracy and businessmen of Europe.
The style especially received a boost with the railway lines connecting the then booming seaside resorts of Germany to European metropolitan areas in the late 19th and early 20th century. It can be a variation of several styles with new elements, including historicism and Art Nouveau, for instance. It is often characterised by two to four storey buildings whose façades are often decorated with balconies, gables and verandas. In larger villas there are occasionally central avants-corps. Arched or rectangular windows predominate, occasionally flanked by half-columns or blind pilasters. Triangular gables and occasionally also curved gables or small turrets close off the ends of the attics. What is special about this form of architecture is its basic composition in classical styles that are very freely combined and which may be mixed with art nouveau ornamentation, for instance on the capitals.
The most common colour is white, which is why the health spas are occasionally described as “white pearls”. As a result, the rare examples in colour, for example, painted in Bordeaux red, olive green, beige or blue, set amongst their white counterparts, are very striking. Overall the buildings appear rather delicate and are often built of wood with a core of stone.
Among the best-known examples today are those found on the Baltic coast on the island of Rügen, for instance in Sellin, Binz or Göhren. Heiligendamm near Bad Doberan is the oldest German seaside spa; numerous buildings from the early spa era can be found there.
Entire ensembles in white with occasionally coloured buildings are found in the parish of Heringsdorf on the island of Usedom. As well as in Kühlungsborn. One of the oldest buildings featuring the resort style was built by Georg Bernhard von Bülow in 1845 in Heringsdorf, Villa Achterkerke. One of the art-historically most important buildings (due to its glass mosaic), is the Villa Oechsler in Heringsdorf, built in 1883 by Antonio Salviati.
The Wolgaster Holzbau company was internationally known for their chalet-inspired resort architecture wooden mansions. They were the first in the world to build prefabricated houses in the 19th century, in places such as Ahlbeck, Bansin, Binz and Heringsdorf.
Description and features
Often, these are two- to four-storey buildings whose facades have balconies and verandas . Larger villas have projecting facade parts ( Risalite ) in the middle and at the corners. Large round or rectangular windows dominate, occasionally flanked by half-columns or pilasters . Triangle gables and occasionally curly gables or small turrets complete the attic floors. Art Nouveau ornaments appear as capitals, often with maritime or floral motifs.
Most of the facades are whitewashed, which is why spas are sometimes called “white pearls “. Noticeable in such white ensembles are the rare non-white pendants (for example bordeaux red, olive green, beige, blue). Overall, the buildings look rather delicate, and often are wooden buildings with a core of stone. Entire ensembles in white and occasionally in tinted color are available in Heiligendamm, Heringsdorf and Ahlbeck on Usedom and in Kühlungsborn .
Famous examples of ensembles in resort architecture are mainly on the Mecklenburg and Pomeranian Baltic coast. Especially on the island of Usedom, in the imperial baths on the beach between Bansin , Heringsdorf, Ahlbeck and Swinoujscie and in Zinnowitz ; and on the island of Rügen, especially in Sassnitz , Sellin , Binz and Göhren . Also in the oldest German seaside resort Heiligendamm near Bad Doberan buildings of this epoch have been built and are still in numerous preservation, the ensemble is known as the pearl necklace of the white city by the sea .
Georg Bernhard von Bülow built one of the oldest buildings of the resort architecture in Heringsdorf in 1845, the Villa Achterkerke . One of the most important historical buildings of art is the Villa Oechsler, built in 1883 by Antonio Salviati (mainly because of its glass mosaic in the gable).
Some bath villas are characterized by elements of alpine log cabins or Russian wooden houses, especially the so-called Wolga houses . These are the first prefabricated houses in the world, which were manufactured between 1868 and 1910 by the “Wolgaster Actien Society for Woodworking” in the city of Wolgast off the island of Usedom. The company mainly built chalets for builders around the world, especially for property owners on Usedom and Rügen – and also on the Berlin Wannsee .
Isolated buildings are also found on the North Sea coast, such as the Kurhaus (Conversationshaus), the Kurhotel and the Haus Schiffahrt on Norderney . In contrast to the seaside resorts they are less filigree and often characterized by more massive shapes and generous proportions.
German seaside resorts with notable resort architecture
Most important coastal areas with seaside resorts in Germany:
Baltic Sea: islands of Fehmarn, Hiddensee, Rügen, Usedom; Rostock, peninsula of Fischland, Darss and Zingst
North Sea: East Frisian Islands and North Frisian Islands
Selection of German seaside resorts along the Baltic Sea and the North Sea coastlines, with major ensembles of resort architecture:
Wyk auf Föhr
Other seaside resorts with notable resort architecture
The formerly mostly German regions of eastern Pomerania, Pomerelia and East Prussia are part of Poland, the Baltic states and Russia today. Notable examples of resort architecture are to be found in seaside spas all along the Baltic coast in these regions.
Klaipėda (Memel, with Mellneraggen)
Kamień Pomorski (Cammin in Pommern)
Mielno (Groß Möllen)
Ustronie Morskie (Henkenhagen)
Zelenogradsk (Cranz, with Priboi/Rosehnen)
Source From Wikipedia