School of Paris 1890 – 1940

Term applied to the loose affiliation of artists working in Paris from the 1920s to the 1950s It was first used by the critic André Warnod in Comoedia in the early 1920s as a way of referring to the non-French artists who had settled and worked in Paris for some years, many of whom lived either in Montmartre or Montparnasse, and who included a number of artists of Eastern European or Jewish origin
From c 1900 a number of major artists had been attracted to the capital because of its reputation as the most vital international centre for painting and sculpture; these included Picasso, Gris and Miró from Spain, Chagall, Soutine and Lipchitz from Russia or Lithuania, Brancusi from Romania and Modigliani from Italy The prominence of Jewish artists in Paris and of foreign artistic influences in general began by c 1925 to cause intense resentment and led to the foreigners being labelled as ‘Ecole de Paris’ in contrast to French-born artists such as André Derain and André Dunoyer de Segonzac, who were said to uphold the purity and continuity of the French tradition After World War II, however, these nationalistic and anti-Semitic attitudes were discredited, and the term acquired a more general use to denote both foreign and French artists working in Paris

School of Paris (French: École de Paris) refers to a group of French and émigré artists who worked in Paris between the first years of the 20th century and the 1950s

The School of Paris was not a single art movement or institution, but it demonstrated the importance of Paris as a center of Western art in the early decades of the 20th century Between 1900 and 1940 the city was a magnet for artists from all over the world and a centre for artistic activity School of Paris was used to describe this broad affiliation, particularly of non-French artists

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Before World War I, a group of expatriates in Paris created in the styles of Post-Impressionism, Cubism and Fauvism It included artists like Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani and Piet Mondrian Associated French artists included Pierre Bonnard, Henri Matisse, Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes Picasso and Matisse have been described as the twin leaders (chefs d’école) of the school

The term “School of Paris” was coined in 1925 by André Warnod to celebrate the contribution of the many foreign-born artists who had recently migrated to Paris The term soon gained currency, often as a derogatory label used by critics who regarded the foreign artists—a large number of whom were Jewish—as a threat to “the purity and continuity of the French tradition After World War II, however, these nationalistic and anti-Semitic attitudes were discredited, and the term acquired a more general use to denote both foreign and French artists working in Paris”

Many of these artists, as well as Jean Arp, Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, Joan Miró, Constantin Brâncuși, Raoul Dufy, Tsuguharu Foujita, artists from Belarus including Michel Kikoine, Pinchus Kremegne, Ossip Zadkine, Jacques Lipchitz, Polish artist Marek Szwarc and others including the Russian-born prince Alexis Arapoff, worked in Paris between World War I and World War II, in various styles including Surrealism and Dada A significant group of Jewish artists came to be known as the Jewish School of Paris This group included Emmanuel Mané-Katz, Chaïm Soutine, Adolphe Féder, Chagall, Moïse Kisling, Shimshon Holzman and Jules Pascin The Musée d’Art et d’Histoire du Judaisme has works from artists such as Pascin, Michel Kikoine, Soutine, and Jacques Lipschitz